Introduction and Epidemiology
With China being the epicentre, 93,574 cases have been reported with 3,204 deaths and 51,059 cases who recovered from the illness(Worldometer.info as at 11:30am GMT 4th March 2020)
Nigerian OutbreaksThe first case reported in Nigeria reported on Friday, 28 February 2020, in Lagos, is an Italian citizen who works in Nigeria and returned from Milan, Italy to Lagos, Nigeria on the 25th of February 2020. He was confirmed for the disease by the virology Laboratory of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, as part of the Laboratory Network of the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control.
As at today, the patient is currently clinically stable with no serious clinical symptoms and is being managed at the Infectious Disease Hospital in Yaba, Lagos.
TransmissionIt is a zoonotic infection transmitted from bats humans. Other animals have also been implicated as noted in the epidemiology above. Human to human contacts has remained to the commonest route since the first outbreak in December 2019.
It is airborne, that is, transmitted via airborne droplets from the respiratory tract of an infected patient.
Risk FactorsThe following are some risk factors for the transmission of the disease:
- Health occupation
- Recent travels
- Contact with a suspected case
- Males are significantly more affected
Signs and SymptomsIt has an incubation period of 2-14 days after which symptoms begin to appear. These include:
- Shortness of breath
- Difficulty breathing not explained by any other illness
Prevention and TreatmentThere is currently no vaccine for preventing COVID-19(Coronavirus disease-19). Prevention is by avoiding exposure to the virus from infected animals or humans. The Centre for Disease Control(CDC) recommends the following preventive measures:
- Avoid close contact with people at risk
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth
- Stay home when you are sick
- Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then discard in the trash
- Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe
- Use of facemask, however not recommended for healthy people without symptoms
- Facemasks should be worn by health workers and people with symptoms
- Handwashing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds
- When soap and water are not readily available, wash hand with an alcohol-based sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
The Nigerian Case
Below is a video about the disease since the onset of the illness in China.